Modelos. Um lugar quase imperceptível da relação ciência e arte
Em: Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia
Editor: Axioma – Publicações da Faculdade de Filosofia, Braga
Rooted in Modernity, it is often considered that the realms of science and art are disjointed worlds, the former being associated with the domains of the universal, the rational, the cognitive, the observation and the discovery; and the second to the scopes of the particular, the emotional, the affective, the imagination and the creation. Recently, several authors, such as Thomas Kuhn, pointed out the parallelisms, intersections, and junctions that can be established between them. In fact, these two worlds enable the human mind to modes of access, representation and reference to reality, where they intersect, with objective experiences and “thought experiments”, paths of innovation and creation, canons of beauty and truth, criteria of symmetry and simplicity, analogies between modes of being and of thinking, models and metaphors, which empower representations of real worlds and imagined worlds, complementary modes of reason and action. But when reason and human action are compartmentalized and atomized, it is the integral human being that is diminished in its unity and possibilities and vocation of imaginative articulation (imagination being an instrument both common to science and art) between necessity and freedom, between matter and spirit, between Nature and culture. It is therefore imperative to preserve and strengthen this unity, exploring convergences and complementarities between these two worlds, which safeguard their essential differences. The encounter between art (painting, sculpture, architecture, music and sound arts, literature, poetry, performing arts, digital arts, …) and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, …) in a world such as the present, in which its interaction with Nature is particularly enriched by the exponential development of technology, forms a singularly innovative relation between art, science and human action. Philosophy is certainly the common ground – and the first beneficiary – that allows us to think of convergences, in unity and multiplicity, bringing together various disciplines – aesthetics, philosophy of art, philosophy of science, philosophy of nature, phenomenology, hermeneutics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics – but elaborating from the prime mater offered by art and science. There are several contemporary and twentieth-century philosophers and scientists who have ventured to think of such convergences, such as (in no particular order) P. Ricoeur, P. Feyerabend, H-G. Gadamer, I. Lakatos, J. Habermas, G. Deleuze, F. Guattari, A.N. Whitehead, among others. And several are the problems that are investigated in this issue from a variety of perspectives: from the relations that can be established, in general, between art and science, between artistic and scientific practices, or between the particular sciences and the specific forms of artistic expression, to the relationships that can be established between human “faculties”, between reason and emotion, in these practices. Furthermore, other questions are also summarized, such as the concepts, models, metaphors and types of rationality that art (s) and science (s) use to access the real, through (s) human experience (s) of the world.